Hand from Above / Chris O’Shea 2009

Shifting Time / Camille Utterback

PLPLPL.PL PT.1-9 / Mattias Oostrik

"Shifting Time – San Jose" is an interactive video installation that juxtaposes the past and present, where the viewer’s body becomes the interface to navigate between. In this piece, commissioned by the City of San Jose for the new terminal of the San Jose International airport, viewers encounter a projected still image. As they walk closer to the projection wall, the surface disrupts, pushing deeper into time in the pre-recorded video clips. Archival film footage blends with high-definition footage from the present, and viewers are able to travel back and forth through time by moving towards and away from the projection wall. Utterback’s software deconstructs the frame as the unit of playback, allowing multiple moments to appear simultaneously. This strategy speaks both to the possibilities of digital tools, and the dynamics of our fluid memories of places and moments in time.
From Here / Lincoln Schatz
Focusing on the phenomenon of how multiple observers can experience the same thing, experience, space or time and come away with separate and distinct memories, two independent video-memory works are installed in the entrance of One Arts Plaza. Two large video walls face the entrance to the building. Each video wall pulls from video files recording video captured via high-definition camera. They both began recording at the same time and will establish their own unique memory of that space over the next eight years.

Chicago-based artist Lincoln Schatz has been drawing attention with his large-scale generative art installations that visualize memory. The artist has recently been commissioned by Dallas developer Billingsley Company to create one of the largest new media works ever installed in a public space. Due to open on March 29, Schatz’s Collision of Memory will be a permanent installation that flanks each side of the entrance to the elevator area of One Arts Plaza, a $125 million multiuse structure, the first of four residential and office buildings on over 10 acres at the eastern edge of the Dallas Arts District. From that moment onwards, two high definition cameras will record the edifice’s lobby activity, on a daily basis, during a minimum of 8 years. Selected according to specific chance operations, segments of the footage will be displayed on two 9 x 9 foot video walls in four overlapping layers: one from the last two minutes and three from a distant time period. While standing between the two screens, viewers will see themselves along with visual memories of that place.
SM slingshot / by VR/Urban

We presume a politics of representation and pictorial illusion, and we make a silly yet deadpan response to 1990s video and digital art–cinematic self-consciousness (for example, the work of Bill Viola,) weighty feminist gesturing (e.g. Shirin Neshat) and insular avatar-based interactive work.
Viola says "the transformation of the Self, usually provoked by a profound inner revelation or an overwhelming sensation of clarity and fathomless emotion, overcomes the individual until literally a 'new light' dawns on him or her… Some of the most profound human experiences occur at times like these, arising at the outer limits of conscious awareness."
It was at that time that he produced his first video artworks. Most significantly, in 1972 he created Tape I. The video featured Viola's reflection in a mirror; he is looking down the lens just before uttering a blood-curdling scream, after which he destroys the image by placing a finger inside of the tape spool. He later remarked on the period and the work, "It was a time of intense experimentation in all sorts of ways; technological and also in terms of looking at the self, and the video camera played into that. "Viola recognized early on how the video camera had the capacity to reveal things about himself that might not otherwise come to the surface. He explained, "It was not just a matter of pointing it at something. It was about self-knowledge, and the camera could fracture the self. You realize that there are two dimensions: what you see and what you feel, and that was a huge area to explore."
Body Movies / Rafael Lozano-Hemmer 2001
Under Scan / Rafael Lozanno-Hemmer 2005
Cecut Project / Krzysztof Wodizcko
2002/Omnimax Theater, Centro Cultural Tijuana, Mexico

Travesias (crossings) / Daniel Canogar 2010
(This one is pre-recorded, rather than live cam feedback??
OFXFLOWTOOLS also in both public installation and performance
Hole in Space / Kit Galloway and Sherrie Rabinowitz 1980
Videoplace / Myron Kreugar 1988
Telematic Dreaming / Paul Sermon 1992
Telematic Dreaming is a seminal installation by Paul Sermon. It was originally created as a commission for the exhibition that is held every summer by the Finnish Ministry of Culture in Kajaani in 1992. And in 2005, it was presented in Taiwan as a reworking project.

Interacting with others’ telematic presence, Kozel (one of the performers) performed in the physical world and the virtual world simultaneously.

Dreaming the Telematic Body
The installation doesn’t include any audible attachments, it might can be explained that Sermon did it deliberately to avoid any noise so as encourage audience concentrate their attention on the bodies separated in real space but virtually connected. As Dixon says, “human interaction was reduced to its simplest essence: touch, trust, vulnerability. ” (Virtual Bodies, P. 217)
The attempts of moving arms and body and touching the virtual body seems very strange in the world that both of us are familiar with. For my understanding, all the installation about is the in-depth exploring of “parallel world”, which represented in our mind/spirit (virtual body) and physical world (flesh body/physical presence).
Like OSS / Adobe Connect, the ”opened” multimedia platform allows us cooperate with others in distance, share our thoughts and express our ”alter ego ( may explained as our virtual counterpart)” in an effortless way. In such a manner, with no physical presence required, therefore it creates the infinite possibilities in doing/making everything together, in a world that not very familiar with. By doing so, “virtual” and “reality” are not sharing different meaning, instead, they connected.

early works
Peter Campus/ 1960s
TV Buddhas/ Nam June Paik /1976
Slowly Turning Narrative/ bill viola 1992
1. Mirror / Live camera feed / Surveillance

2. A shifted/ distorted/ overlaid/ juxtaposed/ delayed time (in its space, or saying, the space in its time) (by using technology)

3. Not just mirror/pixels: The telematic body - the digital body - the virtual body (cybernetics thoughts)

‘thought grows from action and that activity is the engine of change’ (Thelen 1995, p. 69)

[An] organism’s sensorimotor capacities, body and environment not only play an important role in cognition, but the manner in which these elements interact enables particular cognitive capacities to develop and determines the precise nature of those capacities. (Cowart 2010)

[…] people who interact with their physical environments in systematically different ways should form correspondingly different mental representations. (Casasanto 2009)

interactive video can alter a viewer’s attention to body movements and, by simultaneously eliciting body movements in order to see, alter overall understanding of spatial experience by creating a dual objective-subjective role in the viewer. (Nell Breyer)

"It was not just a matter of pointing it at something. It was about self-knowledge, and the camera could fracture the self. You realize that there are two dimensions: what you see and what you feel, and that was a huge area to explore." (bill viola)

Viola recognized early on how the video camera had the capacity to reveal things about himself that might not otherwise come to the surface.

Self-consciousness in art-video camera

Further neuroscientific research has led to speculation about a new class of neurons, termed ‘mirror neurons’ presenting the possibility that ‘action understanding’ is facilitated by internal simulation enlisting both motor and sensory systems in the brain (Rizzolatti and Craighero 2005, 108-9). This research supports the idea that the neural description of an action includes motor and visual components, in other words both a participant’s view and an observer’s view (Ibid. p. 109)

"Campus assigned an active, independent ontological status to the camera eye. It variously takes on the position of the artist himself, his reflection, an outside observer, a mental self-image, a double, an unknown protagonist..." (bill viola)
And that later become what cybernetic theory talks about, the non-meterialized, the virtual body (self).
a reversible spectator /gaze: observer and behaviors
camera as eye, and I see the camera feed, as I see you seeing me. (CU-see-me)Then there might be a recursion...Or preicsely, I become the third persion, outside of myself, an outside observer.
Like Bill's attitude of using technology in supporting his art practice. So that's why we say technology is not just a tool/instrument for making art. It has its poetic, the technology itself is part of the essence of the art.
And I did this research for understanding the role of video camera in art. Because thanks to technology, video camera is permeated all over in our life. webcam, smartphone, social media selfies, face filter... I see the huge potencial of using these technology in art practice, but at the same time I'm loosing the understanding/confidence of this medium...having a feeling that everything made by it might be just for narcissist entertainment.
Video literally evokes the third person. Co-existing with one’s own self-image is an inherently paradoxical, tautological situation. Up to this point it had only been a philosophical conundrum described in literature, but now, with the advent of the live camera, it was given palpable form.

...was able to experience himself from outside himself—to objectify his subjectivity and to directly engage his Double,

If we are to avoid the problem of creating a visual system that will reduce the capacity of the eye, it is necessary to disassociate the video camera from the eye and make it an extension of the room.—Peter Campus Video as a Function of Reality, 1974

—Peter Campus, sev, 1975

When the identity is realized, I as a swordsman see no opponent confronting me and threatening to strike me. I seem to transform myself into the opponent, and every movement he makes, as well as every thought he conceives, are felt as if they were all my own . . .— Takano Shigeoshi

Recognize what is in your sight and what is hidden will become clear to you.—Jesus (Gospel of Thomas)

Marcel Duchamp deflated the aesthetics of materials by working with an assemblage of immaterials/ ideas. (His readymades)

Conceptual artist Sol LeWitt: A work is more important than the aesthetics of the object and focused instead on the communicated content [6].

1968 ICA Cybernetic Serendipity exhibition

avant-garde artist : Adrian Piper’s blank notebooks that asked the viewers to collaborate: “write, draw or otherwise indicate any response sug- gested by this situation (this statement, the blank notebook and pen, the mu- seum context, your immediate state of mind, etc.)” [9].

Jack Burnham’s seminal 1968 essay “System Aesthetics” claimed that the “non- objects” of conceptual art establish a “transition from an object-oriented to a systems oriented culture [where] change emanates, not from things, but from the way things are done” [11].

Lucy Lippard’s text 'Six Years: The dematerialization of the art object' further traces conceptual art’s de-emphasis on the traditional materialist aspect of art as unique, permanent or aesthetically attractive.

Cybernetics stems from the Greek root kybernetes, meaning steersman or governor; Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics as the study of communication and control in both animals and machines [1]. Cybernetics has since diverged into a number of fields, such as information theory, artificial intelligence, artificial life and bio-informatics (Fig. 1).

From its Latin root, which meant "to give form to" or "to form an idea of", We define 'information' as a disembodied, immaterial and transcendental idea, as Plato's Eidos in The Republic.

According to Katherine Hayles, one of the first concepts to come out of the Macy Conferences was the reification of information flows such that information itself began to be considered more important than the physicality of matter, energy and noise, thereby returning to a pseudo-Platonic ideal by envisioning information as a disembodied entity [2].

Cybernetic thought and art’s synthesis have revealed a poetic technicity within the technological and spawned an ever-emerging and continuous source of concepts and ideas.

all media (1969) - Gordon Pask ( cybernetician and psychologist ):
His study of information flows (e.g. feedback loop in cognitive science and the theoretical interaction of any actors/agents) ...seep into the art sphere (and synthesized with the technology of video?)

Video art’s specificity is inherently reflexive: Video’s closed-circuit feedback technology enables the transmission of live images capable of denoting their own structural organizations; this feature stands in direct opposition to the illusionism of film and TV......Additionally, video art maintained the dematerialist trend of first-wave conceptual art, as both tape recordings and live feeds projected onto screens dematerialized physical objects into visual representations

Nam June Paik 1974 TV-Buddha, Bruce Nauman 1970 Live/Taped Video Corridor : turning the viewer into a user of the medium.///!!! address a subject that is fully immersed and invite the viewer to self-reflexively play with his or her environment, continuing conceptual art’s tradition of transforming its audience into an active user rather than a passive viewer.

#autopoiesis (ability to self-organize, while organisms were structurally coupled with their environment)
emergence, virtualization, de-authorization, ununiqueness, digitization

these early video works drew from a foundation of art, engineering and psychology exploring how we perceive time and experience the present. Such ideas about sensation of the present, time and movement, were central to the Futurists (1909-1916), in turn strongly influenced by early industrialization, early film experimentation (Muybridge, Marey 1870s - 1890s) and turn of the century thinkers such as Bergson (Matter and Memory 1896) and William James (The Principles of Psychology 1890) [2].

More than one hundred years later, today's computer-driven experiences are continually modifying our sense of ‘real time’, ‘specious time’ and the present. What portion of the present is actually accessible to our consciousness, when current scientific instruments enable distinction between infinitesimally small points of time (a second, a millisecond, a microsecond, a nanosecond, etc.)? Our corporeal limbs feel present to us, as the body, filled with nerve endings, provides sensory feedback to the mind: ‘I am here, now’.

The body, when active, often demands our full attention. Thus, our own body's movement, demands a continual update of our attention to it now and now and now again. This extended present conducted through the body is like the internet’s eternal present (Picon 2008b, p. 41)
Self conciousness in interactive video camera

It's not about how it aesthetically attractive. It's about the idea, the concept.

It's not about your unique self figuration at the present (here and now). It's about you being aware that you are an agent within an environment, how you and the surrounding/the others reflexivitly affect you.

(what about the collective memory?)
a loop feedback loop of you=your figuration= you =your figuration=...

Then is necessary to bring up the others (the surrounding is as important as the observer agent.

“You’re just analog players in a digital world.”
—Ocean’s Thirteen (Film, Warner Brothers, 2007)

third-wave cybernetics explored the digitally structured worlds that could be created either as virtual representations of our physical world or as autonomous entities within the field of Artificial Life. (digital/ virtual representations come with many advantages over “real”-world physical objects.- can be transported at the speed of light and perfectly duplicated.)

emergence, The key relation between third-wave cybernetics and digital art.